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Your display name should be at least 2 characters long. At Kobo, we try to ensure that published reviews do not contain rude or profane language, spoilers, or any of our reviewer's personal information. You submitted the following rating and review. We'll publish them on our site once we've reviewed them. Item s unavailable for purchase. Please review your cart. You can remove the unavailable item s now or we'll automatically remove it at Checkout. Using this method decreases the need for breeding multiple generations of plants to get a generation that is homologous for the desired traits, therefore save much time in the process.
There are many plant tissue culturing techniques that can be used to achieve the haploid plants, but microspore culturing is currently the most promising for producing the largest numbers of them. Genetic modification of plants is achieved by adding a specific gene or genes to a plant, or by knocking down a gene with RNAi , to produce a desirable phenotype.
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The plants resulting from adding a gene are often referred to as transgenic plants. If for genetic modification genes of the species or of a crossable plant are used under control of their native promoter, then they are called cisgenic plants. Sometimes genetic modification can produce a plant with the desired trait or traits faster than classical breeding because the majority of the plant's genome is not altered.
To genetically modify a plant, a genetic construct must be designed so that the gene to be added or removed will be expressed by the plant. To do this, a promoter to drive transcription and a termination sequence to stop transcription of the new gene, and the gene or genes of interest must be introduced to the plant.
A marker for the selection of transformed plants is also included. In the laboratory , antibiotic resistance is a commonly used marker: Plants that have been successfully transformed will grow on media containing antibiotics; plants that have not been transformed will die. In some instances markers for selection are removed by backcrossing with the parent plant prior to commercial release. The construct can be inserted in the plant genome by genetic recombination using the bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens or A.
Using plant viruses to insert genetic constructs into plants is also a possibility, but the technique is limited by the host range of the virus. For example, Cauliflower mosaic virus CaMV only infects cauliflower and related species. Another limitation of viral vectors is that the virus is not usually passed on the progeny, so every plant has to be inoculated. The majority of commercially released transgenic plants are currently limited to plants that have introduced resistance to insect pests and herbicides.
Insect resistance is achieved through incorporation of a gene from Bacillus thuringiensis Bt that encodes a protein that is toxic to some insects. For example, the cotton bollworm , a common cotton pest, feeds on Bt cotton it will ingest the toxin and die. Herbicides usually work by binding to certain plant enzymes and inhibiting their action. Herbicide resistance can be engineered into crops by expressing a version of target site protein that is not inhibited by the herbicide.
This is the method used to produce glyphosate resistant crop plants See Glyphosate. Genetic modification can further increase yields by increasing stress tolerance to a given environment. Stresses such as temperature variation, are signalled to the plant via a cascade of signalling molecules which will activate a Transcription factor to regulate Gene expression. Overexpression of particular genes involved in cold acclimation has been shown to become more resistant to freezing, which is one common cause of yield loss .
Genetic modification of plants that can produce pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals , sometimes called pharming , is a rather radical new area of plant breeding. Modern plant breeding, whether classical or through genetic engineering, comes with issues of concern, particularly with regard to food crops. The question of whether breeding can have a negative effect on nutritional value is central in this respect. Although relatively little direct research in this area has been done, there are scientific indications that, by favoring certain aspects of a plant's development, other aspects may be retarded.
Reductions in calcium , phosphorus , iron and ascorbic acid were also found. The study, conducted at the Biochemical Institute, University of Texas at Austin , concluded in summary: The debate surrounding genetically modified food during the s peaked in in terms of media coverage and risk perception,  and continues today — for example, " Germany has thrown its weight behind a growing European mutiny over genetically modified crops by banning the planting of a widely grown pest-resistant corn variety.
Such concerns are not new to plant breeding. Most countries have regulatory processes in place to help ensure that new crop varieties entering the marketplace are both safe and meet farmers' needs. Examples include variety registration, seed schemes, regulatory authorizations for GM plants, etc. Plant breeders' rights is also a major and controversial issue. Today, production of new varieties is dominated by commercial plant breeders, who seek to protect their work and collect royalties through national and international agreements based in intellectual property rights.
The range of related issues is complex. In the simplest terms, critics of the increasingly restrictive regulations argue that, through a combination of technical and economic pressures, commercial breeders are reducing biodiversity and significantly constraining individuals such as farmers from developing and trading seed on a regional level. When new plant breeds or cultivars are bred, they must be maintained and propagated.
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Some plants are propagated by asexual means while others are propagated by seeds. Seed propagated cultivars require specific control over seed source and production procedures to maintain the integrity of the plant breeds results. Isolation is necessary to prevent cross contamination with related plants or the mixing of seeds after harvesting. Isolation is normally accomplished by planting distance but in certain crops, plants are enclosed in greenhouses or cages most commonly used when producing F1 hybrids. Critics of organic agriculture claim it is too low-yielding to be a viable alternative to conventional agriculture.
However, part of that poor performance may be the result of growing poorly adapted varieties. Breeding varieties specifically adapted to the unique conditions of organic agriculture is critical for this sector to realize its full potential. This requires selection for traits such as: Currently, few breeding programs are directed at organic agriculture and until recently those that did address this sector have generally relied on indirect selection i.
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However, because the difference between organic and conventional environments is large, a given genotype may perform very differently in each environment due to an interaction between genes and the environment see gene-environment interaction. If this interaction is severe enough, an important trait required for the organic environment may not be revealed in the conventional environment, which can result in the selection of poorly adapted individuals.
There are many classical and modern breeding techniques that can be utilized for crop improvement in organic agriculture despite the ban on genetically modified organisms. For instance, controlled crosses between individuals allow desirable genetic variation to be recombined and transferred to seed progeny via natural processes.
Marker assisted selection can also be employed as a diagnostics tool to facilitate selection of progeny who possess the desired trait s , greatly speeding up the breeding process. Unfortunately, molecular markers are not currently available for many important traits, especially complex ones controlled by many genes.
For future agriculture to thrive there are necessary changes which must be made in accordance to arising global issues. These issues are arable land, harsh cropping conditions and food security which involves, being able to provide the world population with food containing sufficient nutrients. These crops need to be able to mature in several environments allowing for worldwide access, this is involves issues such as drought tolerance.
These global issues are achievable through the process of plant breeding, as it offers the ability to select specific genes allowing the crop to perform at a level which yields the desired results. With an increasing population, the production of food needs to increase with it. But with the degradation of agricultural land, simply planting more crops is no longer a viable option. New varieties of plants can in some cases be developed through plant breeding that generate an increase of yield without relying on an increase in land area. An example of this can be seen in Asia, where food production per capita has increased twofold.
This has been achieved through not only the use of fertilisers, but through the use of better crops that have been specifically designed for the area. Plant breeding can contribute to global food security as it is a cost-effective tool for increasing nutritional value of forage and crops. Improvements in nutritional value for forage crops from the use of analytical chemistry and rumen fermentation technology have been recorded since ; this science and technology gave breeders the ability to screen thousands of samples within a small amount of time, meaning breeders could identify a high performing hybrid quicker.
The main area genetic increases were made was in vitro dry matter digestibility IVDMD resulting in 0. This improvement indicates plant breeding is an essential tool in gearing future agriculture to perform at a more advanced level.
Plant Breeding: Theory and Techniques (Hardcover)
Plant breeding of hybrid crops has become extremely popular worldwide in an effort to combat the harsh environment. With long periods of drought and lack of water or nitrogen stress tolerance has become a significant part of agriculture. Plant breeders have focused on identifying crops which will ensure crops perform under these conditions; a way to achieve this is finding strains of the crop that is resistance to drought conditions with low nitrogen.
It is evident from this that plant breeding is vital for future agriculture to survive as it enables farmers to produce stress resistant crops hence improving food security. Participatory plant breeding PPB is when farmers are involved in a crop improvement programme with opportunities to make decisions and contribute to the research process at different stages.
PPB is enhanced by farmers knowledge of the quality required and evaluation of target environment which affects the effectiveness of PPB. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The art and science of changing the traits of plants in order to produce desired characteristics. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. History of plant breeding. This section needs additional citations for verification. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. For the role of crossing and plant breeding in viticulture, see Propagation of grapevines. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
March Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Institute of Industrial Engineers. Breed Your Own Vegetable Varieties. Archived from the original on The History and Science of Plant Breeding. University of Chicago Press.