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Can I view this online? Similar Items Adoption beyond borders: Members of Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander and Maori communities are advised that this catalogue contains names and images of deceased people. Book , Online - Google Books. Intercountry adoption -- History. Intercountry adoption -- Case studies. Edited by Howard Altstein and Rita J. Most users should sign in with their email address.

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Official data collection only started in and government statistics are based on the number of approved intercountry adopter applications not the number of children brought into the country. Countries with less than five applications are not counted. In , there were intercountry adoptions in In , the intercountry adoption rate in the UK per live births was only 0. Alongside this growth in intercountry adoption, the international community has made very significant attempts to control the process. The underpinning ethical principles were first introduced in Article 21 of UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.

The Hague principles seek to put the best interests of children first. Contracting states must ensue that the abduction, sale and trafficking of children is prevented.

The child must have been freely given up for adoption. No financial inducements of any kind can be made. Efforts must have been made to place the child in a family in their home country. The receiving state must confirm that the adopted child will be given permanent residence and that potential parents have been comprehensively assessed as suitable adopters. At the time of writing, 67 countries, including most of the major receiving countries, have ratified or acceded to the Convention including the UK on 1 June More problematically, most of the states of origin from which children are being adopted have either not accepted the Hague principles or are at a very early stage of implementation.

Children from convention countries are considered legally adopted on their arrival in the UK and automatically receive British citizenship. It is only this second group of children who are subject to a local authority monitoring process and who will have medical examinations as a prerequisite of their British adoption.

There are no published data although anecdotal evidence suggests that British intercountry adopters are articulate and well educated.

Many have lived and worked in their chosen country. Most act upon humanitarian motives. Others mistakenly believe that adopting abroad involves less bureaucracy or that it will be easier to adopt a very young child. They have also had to manage frustratingly long delays in both countries supported only by the voluntary sector or other adopters. Now regardless of the country involved or their relationship to the child, anyone wishing to adopt a child overseas must undergo the same procedure as domestic adopters.

Intercountry Adoption

Before travelling abroad to meet a child, all adopters must be formally approved by their local adoption panel. Unlike domestic adoption however, adopters are still expected to become experts in the adoption practices of the chosen country, make all initial enquiries, identify a child and pay the full costs. In terms of potential health risks, adopters are advised to obtain comprehensive, local, public health information, although this information is frequently unobtainable or unreliable. Although it is now illegal to pay the birth parents or any intermediary, third party payments for genuine expenses must be met.

Yet the child could have medical problems that are rare or unknown in the developed world. Family histories are unknown in abandoned children. Prenatal drug or alcohol misuse, obstetric complications or positive tests for blood borne viruses can be deliberately concealed. Physical examinations can miss developmental delay.

Intercountry adoption

Neonatal screening tests and immunisations may be incomplete. Medical reports need to be translated and interpretation is often compounded by differences in medical culture. One American study looked at Chinese children girls adopted in Screening tests found hepatitis B, abnormal haemoglobin and a chronic salmonella carrier. In the USA, where specialised intercountry adoption clinics have existed for over a decade, there is a nationally recommended schedule of screening tests for all children.

All children have their vision and hearing tested and a developmental assessment.

Immunisations given in orphanages are repeated. This comprehensive medical screening is rare in the UK where the total responsibility for securing health is placed on the adopters. This position is unacceptable and leaves children at risk. Adoption in Romania illustrates both the best and worst aspects of intercountry adoption and has led to the most comprehensive British study on outcomes of early deprivation.

The demographics of intercountry adoption

The Romanian children had been confined to their cots in impersonal unsanitary institutions with insufficient food and no opportunities for play. Profound deprivation is also compatible with normal psychological functioning. One fifth of the children who had spent the longest time in institutions showed normal functioning. The behavioural outcomes were unaffected by the quality of the adoptive home. Today Romania is making strenuous efforts to rehabilitate children and orphanages have closed. Spending on antenatal care and family planning has increased. Foster families and volunteers have been recruited to work with abandoned children.